Crime prevention is more important than punishment. Early hyperactivity and attention problems without concurrent aggression, however, appear not to be related to later aggressive behavior Loeber, ; Magnusson and Bergman, ; Nagin and Tremblay,although a few studies do report such relationships Gittelman et al.
Executive functions require generating and maintaining appropriate mental representations, monitoring the flow of information, and modifying problem-solving strategies in order to keep behavior directed toward the goal.
He pointed out that some aspects ofjuvenile delin-quency—the play, adventure, and excitement— are a normal part of teenage street life and that, later in their lives, many nostalgically identify these activities as an important part of their adolescence.
One effort to answer behavioral questions with insights from conflict theory is an "integrated structural-Marxist theory" proposed by Colvin and Pauly- Areas that were high in juvenile delinquency at the turn of the 20th century were also high in juvenile delinquency several decades later, even though many of the original residents had moved away or died.
According to this principle, laws will be enforced when enforcement serves the interests of social control agencies and their officials; and laws will not be enforced when enforcement is likely to cause organizational strain. Young people calculate the costs and benefits of their behavior before they act.
Alternatively, a certain family structure may increase the risk of delinquency, but only as one more stressor in a series; it may be the number rather than specific nature of the stressors that is harmful. Many children reach adulthood without involvement in serious delinquent behavior, even in the face of multiple risks.
In turn, Colvin and Pauly argue that such children are more likely to be placed in coercive control structures at school and to enter into alliances with alienated peers.
In this way, psychopathy does not just implicate the personality and character of a person but also his or her genes.
They discovered that delinquency rates declined the farther one moved from the center of the city.
Economic theories are known as classical theories. If the child is having troubles in school, there are many resources that can be used to help them improve their schooling experience.
Sykes and Matza list four of these neutralization techniques: This risk is then increased by environmental stressors such as failure in school, bad parenting, substance abuse and delinquent peers. Again, our theories have focused more on increases in delinquency than on its decline.
At the level of individuals, to have neither goals nor means is to be uncommitted and thus uncontrolled. Thus Spitzer begins the formulation of a Marxian theory of delinquency and deviance more generally with the observation, "We must not only ask why specific members of the underclass are selected for official processing, but also why they behave as they do" p.
Separately or together, these correlates of teenage parenthood have been found to increase risk for delinquency Rutter et al. Social Setting Where a family lives affects the nature of opportunities that will be available to its members.
There have been suggestions that early-onset delinquents are more likely than later-onset delinquents to be more serious and persistent offenders e. In criminal procedure, secret accusations and torture must be abolished.
For more than two centuries, academic criminologists have developed a host of theories to explain juvenile delinquency. Depending on what type of criminal act has been committed, a child accused of juvenile delinquency will need good legal representation.
In addition, about three-quarters of drug users in each sample were also involved in serious delinquency Huizinga and Jakob-Chien, Hirschi argues that delinquent behavior is inversely related to the presence of these controls.
Our theories are much more attentive to why young people become delinquent than to why they stop being so. While the content of what is learned is different, the process for learning any behavior is the same.
The id represents basic biological and psychological drives and does not differentiate between fantasy and reality. Hirschi has argued that the absence of control is all that really is required to explain much delinquent behavior. Psychopathy is a controversial theory, and much disagreement centers on whether the theory should be applied toward children and adolescent delinquents.
There is evidence that chronic offenders gain fewer resources than nonoffenders, after the adolescent period Moffitt, Sykes and Matza list four of these neutralization techniques: In contrast, children who have suffered parental neglect have an increased risk of delinquency.
Characteristics of women who become teenage parents appear to account for some of the risk. Delinquent and nondelinquent boys brought a friend to the laboratory.
Fourth, in small, intimate groups, children learn techniques for committing crime, as well as the appropriate motives, attitudes, and rationalizations. Social action should be based on the utilitarian principle of the greatest happiness for the greatest number.III.
Major Theories of Juvenile Delinquency. Any idea about the causes, extent, and correlates of juvenile delinquency is essentially a theory, such as equating juvenile delinquency with sin and violating God’s law.
For more than two centuries, academic criminologists have developed a host of theories to explain juvenile delinquency. This section broadly examines theories of juvenile delinquency from economics, psychology, and—the most common theoretical approach—sociology.
Some of the earliest theories of juvenile delinquency were economic in their perspective. Economic theories are known as classical theories. Modern studies on juvenile delinquency have found these factors influential enough in juvenile delinquency thus describing them as contemporary theories (HÅ n-su & HyÅ n-silp.
39). A good example is educational abilities of some victims of this kind of crimes. Juvenile delinquency is also used to refer to children who exhibit a persistent behavior of mischievousness or disobedience, so as to be considered out of parental control, becoming subject to legal action by the court system.
This section will first consider factors within the family that have been found to be associated with the development of delinquency and then consider peer influences on delinquent behavior. Note that issues concerning poverty and race are dealt with under the community factors section of this chapter.
JUVENILE DELINQUENCY, THEORIES OFThe topic of juvenile delinquency is a fertile area for construction of sociological theory. Three major sociological traditions, including structural functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory, contribute to the explanation of delinquency.Download